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Designing Innovation Inquiry
  • 저자 : 최석봉
  • 발행일 : 2012-11-30
  • ISBN : 978-89-5972-296-9 93320
  • 정가 : 28,000원
  • 기타 : 314페이지 / 크라운판 / 양장
P R E FA C E

Economic development through industrialization in emerging countries is a process of acquiring technological capabilities and translating them into competitive products and processes in the course of continuous technological change in the market. Increasingly, sustainable competitive advantages of firms require the steady technological catch-up and innovation that meet changing global market expectations. These days it is quite noticeable to read about the rapid technological advancement and growth of emerging market firms in the global market.
This book is about designing technological development and innovation research in the context of emerging economies. It is an effort to understand how emerging countries and their firms have successfully built their competitive advantages in terms of technological and innovation capabilities in a short period of time. A central assumption of this book is that there is a real difference between advanced and emerging countries and their firms in terms of technological catch-up and innovation strategy, and management practices for them. Most emerging countries have undergone fundamental transformation of institutional arrangements and comprehensive restructuring of exist-ing organizations. Such a series of profound and dynamic change is commonly viewed as a primary source for shaping national diversity of innovation. In this book, I assert that institutional change and economic transition are closely related to the process of acquiring technological and innovation capabilities and translating them into national(or firms’) competitive advantages within country specific systems of innovation.
One of key propositions drawn from this book is that the performance differences between advanced and emerging countries cannot be attributed solely to their technological competence. Rather, institutional framework including the state, corporate governance system and their reform also attributed significantly to their performances in technology development and innovation.
In this vein, the theoretical model suggested in the book aims to integrate a variety of different institutional and organizational determinants of innovation into a synthetic model. The model is inspired by both the sociological institutionalist point of view, as well as the comparative political economic perspective, and brings them into current
management theories. The analytical model in this book conceptualizes emerging countries’ successful innovation(or technological change) as a process of possessing technical innovative resources and being engaged in a continuous process of creative institutional substitution or institutional transformation, so called ‘institutional innovation’. In other words, the successful technology development and innovation in emerging countries can be seen the result of effective co-evolution process of technology, industrial structure and supporting institutions.I discuss this argument in detail in terms of key issue, main theoretical approach, and methodological stance. In doing so, I reveal much about distinctive role of institutional configuration of emerging countries’ approach to technology development and innovation and their key factors for success and failure.
My goal in writing this book is to encourage scholars to take scientific inference seriously and to incorporate it into their work. I hope that my alternative logic of theoretical and methodological implications to understand technology and innovation development in emerging economies, and my attempt to demonstrate that this unified logic can be helpful to researchers, will help improve the work in management disciplineand perhaps aid research in other social sciences as well.
I am deeply indebted to several individuals and organizations. I ben-efited from discussions with my colleagues from University of Ulsan, University of London, University of Tokyo, University of West Ontario, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies and University of Toledo. I am grateful to K.H.Choi, J.D. Kim, J.S. Moon, my family and all those who provided friendship and support for this book. I also would like to thank S.Y. Lee, my editor at Chung-Nam Publisher and his fellow staff members who all did a wonderful job of turning the manuscript into a book. This book is for them all.

Suk Bong Choi, Ph.D.
Deagu, South Korea
November 2012



The rapid technological catch-up of emerging market firms since the 1960s has revitalized academic and policy interest in the relationship between country-specific institutional configuration and firm level competitive advantage. This book is about designing the research for understanding the technological development and innovation process of emerging market firms. Chapter 1 is about the possible insight and application of strategic management theories to explain emerging market firms’ performance. Chapter 2 reviews previous innovation research which has been done in the context of emerging countries. Chapter 3 discusses the role of state and institutional change of emerging countries during industrialization process. Chapter 4 focused on corporate
governance reform in emerging countries. Chapters 5-8 explore further issues of designing innovation research in the context of emerging countries with four aspects. Key details of each chapter are summarized as below.

Chapter 1 is titled “Strategic Management Theories in the Context of Emerging Countries”
This chapter provides critical reviews of contributions from existing management theories on firms’ strategy in emerging economies. It encompasses main assumptions, principle of accounting of firms’ behavior in transition period and while theoretical limitations of explanation for transition and emerging economies according to the theories are discussed. I also review theoretical strength and implications for performing firms’ restructuring strategy in emerging market context. Despite the novelty of management theories to understand firms’ strategic behavior, I found that more specific literatures are required to tackle distinctive dynamics of technological development and innovation activities in the context of emerging and transition countries which have undergone comprehensive institutional change during the process of technological development. I highlight that no single perspective will be comprehensive enough to address the complex process and nature
of economic transition, as well as the organizational dynamics of macro institutional change in emerging countries. Thus, this chapter concludes that much scope exists for theoretical integration among different perspectives on understanding firms’ strategy in those economies.

Chapter 2 is titled “Understanding Innovation Research in the Context of Emerging Countries”
The chapter presents a critical review of theories and empirical studies that explore the determinants of firms’ technological innovation and the relationship between innovation and firm performance with special reference to emerging countries. It also overviews different categories
of innovation models and identifies their main contributions and limitations. The empirical evidence for these theoretical views on innovation is also assessed, focusing mainly on the determinants of innovation and their relationship with the firm performance. To articulate my research themes in better detail, I bring together the body of innovation studies in the context of emerging countries with the literature on technological and economic development, particularly identifying distinctive organizational and institutional characteristics of technological catch-up and innovation processes.

Chapter 3 is titled “The Role of the State and Institutional Change”
It is well known that the comprehensive role of the state is the most significant characteristic of East Asian countries’ economic and technology development. Hence, this study suggests that the understanding of latecomer countries’ rapid technological catch-up and the distinctive nature of innovation activities presupposes an adequate understanding of the activities of the state. State intervention in economic development has been one of the most long-lasting and controversial issues in economic and management disciplines. That is because the role of the state is so complex in practice, and generally it has involved not only the economic efficiency, but also many non-economic affairs in society such as morality, power, liberty and legitimacy depending on the
country’s modernization context(H.J. Chang, 1994). In this section, I organize my discussion on the role of the state into three parts to make these complex issues more understandable by focusing mainly on the context of economic development of East Asian countries.

Chapter 4 is titled “Corporate Governance Research”
Corporate governance is concerned with the set of mechanisms on how corporations allocate power to make important decisions and to distribute returns among the actors concerned. Sound corporate governance in emerging countries is commonly seen as an essential condition for building sustainable national economic success as well as firms’ competitive advantage. Thus, significant efforts have been enhanced to improve the quality of not only corporate governance such as ownership structure and composition of the board, but also their basic legal framework of protection for investors and the financial market.
The literature review on corporate governance reform in emerging and transition countries not only highlights the need to consider countryspecific institutional arrangements beyond agency problems in selecting a national model of corporate governance. It also generates important policy and strategic implications for emerging countries in light of recent trends toward adopting the Anglo-American model.

Chapter 5 is titled “Designing Innovation Inquiry I: Late Industrialiser Perspective on Institutional Change, Corporate Governance and Innovation Systems”
This chapter develops a conceptual framework for providing a systematic explanation of variation in the technological development and patterns of innovation of emerging countries. Specifically, the framework identifies three inter-related issues that shape the national institutional foundations for creating competitive advantage and innovation activities: institutional change, corporate governance and innovation systems. By linking institutional and NSI approaches to the late industrializer perspective, the book examines how different institutional configurations support different opportunities and considers the constraints of firms’ technological development and innovation performance during economic transition and the industrialization process. In this vein, three institutional and two organizational domains were constructed
with propositions. Elaborating on the perspective of governance and innovation, the analytical model conceptualises latecomers’ successful innovation(technological change) as a process of possessing technical innovative resources and being engaged in a continuous process of
creative institutional substitution or institutional transformation (or ‘institutional innovation’).

Chapter 6 is titled “Designing Innovation Inquiry II: Theoretical Framework for Determinants of Innovation and Firm Performance”
In this chapter, I design analytical framework for the empirical analysis of the firm level determinants of innovation and its consequences on financial performance in the context of emerging countries with special reference to Korea and China. The framework is based on the dynamic capabilities view while drawing on the theories of corporate governance and innovation. This chapter investigates two major issues in this vein: i) the determinants of innovation, especially the effects of ownership characteristics, business groups affiliation and sectoral context on innovation performance, ii) the relationship between innovation capability and firm financial performance. Hence, this framework I developed covers unique corporate governance factors, and organizational and sector specific considerations as a prelude to analyzing the variations in innovation performance of firms. It also provides a new
perspective on the link between innovation capabilities and financial performance of firms based on new conceptualization of firm innovation capability from three aspects: the intensity, scope and spillover of innovation.

Chapter 7 is titled “Designing Innovation Inquiry II: Theoretical Framework for Corporate Governance and Innovation”
In this chapter, two theoretical perspectives are discussed and integrated to form the building blocks for the main arguments linking corporate governance and innovation. Corporate governance in the book is conceptualized as two factors: ownership concentration and owner-
ship types. In this context, I argue that shareholders from different domains play multiple roles and have different interests for control, monitoring and resource dependence purposes. Thus, agency theory and resource dependence perspective are used to frame this issue properly.

Chapter 8 is titled “Designing Innovation Inquiry III: Methodology for Comparative Analysis and Empirical Investigation”
This chapter discuses key issues of methodological practice in innovation studies in the context of emerging countries. In order to explore an appropriate research design for the innovation research of emerging countries, firstly, issue in measurement of Innovation performance is
discussed based on an assessment of strength and weakness of measures of innovation used in previous research. Secondly, I introduce a comparative country case study in detail and provided an example for this research method with Korean and Chinese cases. Finally, I provide
the general discussion on an appropriate research design for the innovation research. The book suggests an integrated and multilevel research method for future research direction in this area.
Chapter 1 Strategic Management Theories in the Context of Emerging Countries
Introduction
SCP(Structure, Conduct and Performance)
Agency theory
Transaction Cost Economics
Resource-Based View of the Firm
Institutional Theory
Concluding Remarks

Chapter 2 Understanding Innovation Research Context of Emerging Countries
Introduction
Theoretical View on Technological Innovation
Empirical Studies of Technological Innovation
Innovation and Firm Performance
Innovation Studies in Emerging Countries
Concluding Remarks

Chapter 3 The Role of the State and Institutional Change
Theory of Economic Development
The Role of the State in East Asian Economic Development
The Transformation of Role of the State
The Role of the State in Transition Countries
The East Asian Economic Crisis and the Role of the State
Concluding Remarks

Chapter 4 Corporate Governance Research
Comparative Corporate Governance Research
Corporate Governance Problems in Emerging Countries
Concluding Remarks

Chapter 5 Designing Innovation Inquiry I: Late Industrializer Perspective on Institutiona
Change, Corporate Governance and Innovation Systems
Introduction
Late Industrializer Perspective
Three Approaches Revisited
Designing Innovation Inquiry I
Economic Transition and Institutional Change
Concluding Remarks

Chapter 6 Designing Innovation Inquiry II : Theoretical Framework for Determinants of
Innovation and Firm Performance
Introduction
Review of Research on Development of Technology
The Dynamic Capabilities View and Firm Innovation
Determinants of Innovation and Firm Performance
Corporate Governance and Innovation
Innovation Capability and Firm Performance
Strengths of This Theoretical Framework
Concluding Remarks

Chapter 7 Designing Innovation Inquiry III: Theoretical Framework for Corporate
Governance and Innovation
The Agency Theory
The Resource Dependence Theory

Chapter 8 Designing Innovation Inquiry IV: Methodology for Comparative Analysis and Empirical Investigation
Introduction
Measurement of Innovation Performance
Comparative Historical Case Analysis
Appropriate Methodological Stance for Innovation Studies in Emerging Countries
Dr. Suk Bong Choi is an Associate Professor of Management at University of Ulsan, Republic of Korea. Dr. Choi holds a Ph.D. in Management from University of London, U.K. He also holds an European MPA from Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium and a B.A. from Kyung Hee University in Seoul, Korea. Before joining to academia, he worked for the Ministry of Information and Communications as a member of government delegation for the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) on negotiations between Korea and other countries, and Korea Information Society Development Institute (KISDI) as a research fellow. His articles appear in journals that include Research Policy, Corporate Governance: An International Review, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Service Industries Journal, Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, International Journal of Services and Operations Management, Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings, Asia Pacific Journal of Small Business Studies, Korean Journal of Organization and Management. He has received Best Paper Awards from the Korean Academy of Human Resource Management (KAHRM, 2012), the Korean Academy of International Business (KAIB, 2011, 2012), The Knowledge Management Society of Korea (KMS, 2010) and ShinHan Bank Best Conference Paper Award of AKMS (2008). His research interests include corporate governance, firm innovation strategy, organizational learning, and comparative management studies of Korea, China and Japan. He serves on the editorial boards of several Korean publications and has extensive consulting experience.